okers will offer to dispose of waste at below the market rate.

  Brokers charge between $130 and $170 to dump a ton of waste in a sparsely

populated part of the country, says Lee, Kim’s former boss.

  Not only can this be a lucrative source of income, the fines for illegal

dumping are only about $3,000, Lee says.

  Lee estimates that Kim pocketed upwards of $22 million this way, judging by the extra trash that was found at his site.

  A new dumping ground

  Since the China ban, South Korea has been using Southeast Asia as a

dumping ground for much of its non-recyclable waste.

  The country now exports 10 times more waste to the Philippines and

almost 30 times mor

e to Thailand than it did before Beijing’s ban. But not all the waste sent abroad is

disposed of legally.

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